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CROI 2016: Injection-Related Indiana HIV Epidemic Is Under Control, But Vigilance Needed

Extensive epidemiological investigation followed by prevention and treatment interventions have largely succeeded in controlling an outbreak of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in rural Indiana linked to injection of prescription opioids, but new cases continue to appear and many other communities may be at risk for similar outbreaks, according to presentations at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2016) last week in Boston.

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AASLD 2015: Tenofovir During Pregnancy Reduces Risk of Mother-to-Child Hepatitis B Transmission

Women with chronic hepatitis B and high viral load who were treated with tenofovir (Viread) during pregnancy were significantly less likely to transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) to their babies, according to study findings presented this week at the AASLD Liver Meeting in San Francisco. Another study showed that women with hepatitis B often experience viral load or ALT "flares" during pregnancy or post-partum.

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Mothers with Hepatitis B Can Safely Breastfeed

Women with chronic HBV infection can breastfeed with minimal risk of transmitting the virus to their babies if they use standard prophylactic therapy, according to a recent review.

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Screening and Post-Natal Prophylaxis Reduce Mother-to-Child HBV Transmission

Prenatal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B virus (HBV), followed by immune prophylaxis for infants using injected hepatitis B antibodies and the first dose of the HBV vaccine given soon after delivery, resulted in a low rate of vertical HBV transmission -- less than 1 per 100 births -- in a real-world study described in the May 27 advance edition of Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Uninfected Infants Born to HIV Positive Mothers May Have Impaired Immune Function

Infants born to mothers with HIV appear to be more susceptible to certain bacterial infections even if they are not HIV-infected themselves, according to research from South Africa published in the February 9, 2011 Journal of the American Medical Association. HIV-exposed children get fewer antibodies from their mothers through the placenta during gestation, but they show robust responses to vaccination, indicating that their own immune function is not impaired.

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