Tuberculosis

CROI 2015: XDR-TB in South Africa is Largely Spread Person-to-Person, Not By Treatment Failure

The vast majority of people with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) diagnosed in the world’s most extensive outbreak have acquired their infection from another person, not as the result of the failure of treatment for multidrug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (MDR-TB), N. Sarita Shah reported at the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) last week in Seattle.

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CROI 2015: XDR TB Transmission in High-HIV-Prevalence Settings [VIDEO]

Most people with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in South Africa acquired the infection through person-to-person transmission -- including transmission in community settings as well as in hospitals -- rather than due to failure of treatment for multidrug-resistant TB, according to a report at the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) last week in Seattle.

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New WHO Report Finds Tuberculosis More Common than Previously Estimated

The global burden of tuberculosis (TB) may encompass nearly half a million more cases than previously thought, due to better data reporting, according to the World Health Organization's Global Tuberculosis Report 2014, released last week. According to the new report, 9 million people developed TB in 2013 and 1.5 million died from the disease, but new cases and mortality continue to decline. The report will be presented at the Union World Conference on Lung Health taking place this week in Barcelona.

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CROI 2015: Early ART and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Reduce Risk of Illness and Death in Africa

Starting HIV treatment at a CD4 cell count above 500 cells/mm3 reduced the risk of serious illness, including tuberculosis (TB), and death by 44% when compared to starting treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, results from the 7-year Temprano study show. The findings were presented on at the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) last week in Seattle. The study also found that a 6-month course of isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) reduced the risk of developing TB by 35%.

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ICAAC 2014: IRIS and Risk of Early Death Among HIV+ People with Tuberculosis

People coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) who go onto develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) while on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a pre-ART immunological profile that is easily distinguishable from those who are at risk of early mortality despite being treated for both HIV and TB, according to a presentation at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy this month in Washington, DC.

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